PCB Fabrication as an Industry

Posted in Electronics on March 30th, 2015
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PCB fabrication may look easy but in a larger scale, it is broader than what you think. PCB manufacturing requires larger equipment and much more technical skills since the fabricated circuit board that one needs to make is shipped to different companies to be used as electronic components for various gadgets.

Here are the steps in doing a PCB fabrication on a larger scale.

1. Preparation of data.

A manufacturer has its own board designer that produces the circuit layout using Computer Aided Design or CAD software. All are checked automatically to ensure accuracy.

2. Preparation of photo tools.

Pcb fabricationPhoto tools such as photo plotters are used to transfer the image into the PCB. The photo plotter takes the board data from the CAD system and then converts it into a pixel image. It is then printed onto a film using laser. The film is printed out and is now ready to be used for PCB fabrication processes.

3. Printing of inner layers.

For multilayer PCBs, laminates are used to make the inner layers. Laminates are epoxy resins and glass-fiber core with copper foil that are pre-bonded on both surfaces. The panels are processed in a clean room to make sure that there will be no dust as it may cause short circuits to finished boards

4. The etching process.

The excess copper plating in the board is removed using an etching solution. This step should be done with extra caution as the process produces an exothermic reaction. In addition, the process is controlled carefully to ensure that the finished board is in exact dimensions just like in the design layout. After the etching process, the covering of copper image is removed to finally expose the exact board design.

5. Inspection of printed circuit boards.

An Automatic Optical Inspection or AOI system is used to scan the board and compare it with the digital image of the circuit. Any mistakes or errors detected by the system are displayed on a screen to determine the actions needed to be done.

6. Drilling the holes.

Drilling the holes for PCBs is a slow process as each drilling is done individually. Each hole is drilled carefully as this will serve as the connecting points for the electronic components of the board.

7. Electroless copper deposition process.

Electrocopper is deposited onto the hole walls that will serve as a conductor for the electricity to flow once the board is completely fabricated.

8. Imaging the outer layers.

For multilayered PCBs, the outer or exposed layers are imaged with the use of a photosensitive film on which the circuit is designed. The image is then transferred onto the board using ultraviolet light.

9. Plating.

The board is then subjected to copper plating. Once done, a thin layer of tin is added. When the application of layers is done, the PCBs are checked to ensure that each layer is of right thickness.

10. Etching of outer layers.

The thin layer of tin is used as etch resistant. This will protect the copper linings that are necessary for the board. To etch, a powerful alkaline solution is used to remove the excess copper on the circuit.

11. Application of solder mask.

This step is done to prevent short circuits once the PCBs are used.

12. Surface finish.

A surface finish is important for PCB fabrication since it will protect the electrical components mounted into the circuit. One common surface finish is by depositing nickel and a thin layer of gold over nickel.

13. Electrical testing.

The finished boards are tested by using a probe tester to ensure that they are working well and ready to be used for commercial purposes.

14. Final inspection.

This is necessary to make sure that the manufactured PCBs are safe and ready for release.

PCB fabrication is indeed very important in the industry so that people will be able to use machines and gadgets that make life much easier.

Long Island Foreclosure Lawyer Knows Best: Mortgage Modification Is Key

Posted in Legal on March 3rd, 2015
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When a homeowner fails to make his updated monthly mortgage payments, he risks having the lending institution foreclose on his home. In this case, the homeowner should seek the help of a Long Island foreclosure lawyer for guidance in lessening the stressful and financially draining impact of foreclosure on his future.

How Mortgage Modification Works

One way of accomplishing this is by employing the method of mortgage modification, in which a more reasonable payment system is agreed upon by the lender and the homeowner. This allows the homeowner to improve on his current mortgage loan instead of applying for an additional mortgage, which will only increase his financial burden. Mortgage modification decreases the amount and interest of his monthly payments as well as increases the number of years that he can repay his loan.

Homeowners who are unable to pay their mortgage payments due to financial difficulties are advised to avail of the mortgage modification scheme. The idea of refinancing their mortgage may have been initially considered, but this option is unattainable due to financial constraints or non-flexible loan terms of the lending institution. It would be wise to contact a qualified Long Island foreclosure lawyer immediately in order to prevent the inevitable consequences of a foreclosure, such as a tarnished credit history and difficulty in applying for new loans in the future.

How to Qualify for Mortgage Modification

Long island foreclosure lawyerThere are several common standards in qualification which have to be followed by a homeowner in order for him to avail of a mortgage modification (each lending institution or bank, however, has its own set of criteria that the homeowner must abide to). With the help of a knowledgeable Long Island foreclosure lawyer, the homeowner must show records as evidence that he is indeed financially strapped, has been delinquent in making his monthly payments for three consecutive months (as a result of his financial difficulties, and not because the said delinquency was intended), and has been occupying his home as its principal resident.

How One Can Benefit From Mortgage Modification

What tangible benefits can be gained by a homeowner who is experiencing financial difficulties from a mortgage modification? The most obvious advantage is the avoidance of impending foreclosure of his property. The home owner is given flexibility and sustainability in making his monthly mortgage obligations to the lending institution, and this setup actually serves to benefit the lending bank as well because it is assured of the willingness on the part of the homeowner to fulfill his financial obligations. Furthermore, it allows the lending institution the freedom from having to resort to a foreclosure process that takes up valuable time and adds to its own set of financial hardships. By providing the mortgage modification scheme to the homeowner, the lender experiences a much reduced loss compared to spending more time and money on foreclosure proceedings.

Mortgage Modification In The Past

For quite a long time, mortgage modification has already been offered by lending institutions to homeowners in financial crises. But the present widespread foreclosures in the country, especially in Long Island, have given rise to its increased use, as it is one of the best options that an experienced Long Island foreclosure lawyer could offer to the homeowner who seeks his assistance. The homeowner’s inability to refinance his existing mortgage, coupled with his failure to prevent defaulting on his payments, is the favorable conditions for a mortgage modification application.

Mortgage Modification At Present

The tendency to employ the mortgage modification scheme has become prevalent in present times due to the ongoing crisis experienced by the housing industry. Foreclosures became widespread as mortgage lenders succumbed to the pressure of keeping their lending businesses by offering severely lowered interest rates and more lenient requirements to their borrowers. In the process, this practice attracted a large number of borrowers who would not have passed the original standard criteria but who got their loan applications approved in the end. These new breed of unqualified homeowners inevitably defaulted on their monthly mortgage payments and were predictably served with foreclosure notices. The fortunate development to come out of this distressing housing issue was the government’s initiative of encouraging mortgage lending institutions to allow at-risk homeowners to have their monthly payments and interests lowered and their loan term lengthened through mortgage modification.

Fast Weight Loss With Real HCG Drops

Posted in Weight Loss on February 17th, 2015
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There are a lot of promises that you are going to cycle through when you start to look into the world of fitness. Just do a quick search for “fast weight loss” and you can find yourself amidst a lot of options that seem promising at first glance. What you will find out to be true, however, is that a lot of them aren’t going to deliver on the premise of getting real results. The reason why most things don’t really work out in the way that you want them to is simple, they aren’t going to help your body achieve natural elements. You will find that the fastest way to get moving forward is to look at what works within the body and how you can boost it all new levels. When you find a way to boost things to an all new level, you are going to end up with a positive amount of feedback, and it will come from the results that you receive in a fast manner. That’s where things like real hcg drops come into play. These things help you by allowing you to reach all new heights in regards to metabolic rate, and sustainable calorie loss.

Natural Enzymes

real hcg dropsThe body produces a lot of hormones and enzymes that come through in flying colors. They come through in a way that creates a balancing act for ultimate success. When you seek this out, you will feel a change in your energy levels. The energy that you end up seeing is going to produce a need to exercise more and feel better overall. That’s where the results start to manifest. As you look to burn off the energy that you have in place, you are going to see drastic changes overall, and those changes will not just be a matter of losing water weight. Often times, when people start a good work out plan, they are losing water weight through sweat and more. That means that the true nature of their losses aren’t defined within the right order. However, when you use real hcg drops, and they start to work, you will see the dissipation of fat within the body.

The fat cells that you have in the body can be converted into energy. That is where you can move forward with the world of supplements and results. As you convert the energy from fat, you also start to work on caloric stability, and the food you eat will burn through fast as well. It’s something that is definitely worth pursuing on a grand scale, and something that is going to push your body to all new limits.

Balancing Everything

It’s important that you understand that there is more to this than just one thing. You will need to balance several elements in order to see a good push forward. If you want to end up with results, you will need to not only work on diet, exercise and supplements. You will need to be aware of all of them in moderation, and use things like real hcg drops to help boost the system in a natural manner. When you focus on 100% natural options, you will see that the weight that you drop will be solid fat loss. Fat cells that are turned into energy burn off, and do not come back. They create a substantial element of sequencing, and something that is going to absolutely give you a charge moving forward. Don’t assume that this is something that is far off, it’s within grasp if you just look into getting the right options, solid ingredients, and pursue things in the right manner.

Author Bio:

The HCG drops contain all natural ingredients, which make this a very safe way for you to lose weight. You don’t have to worry about injections, or spending thousands of dollars at clinics – these drops are taken orally and as a result, the cost is much lower than other diet options, saving your thousands of dollars, just visit URL.

A Stamp of Loyalty: Customized Challenge Coins

Posted in Military on February 9th, 2015
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Custom challenge coins are a great way to show how much oneness and solidarity is valued amongst the members of your group or organization. Most people will find it more fulfilling to receive a coin of impeccable construction in an elegant pouch or case than to be handed yet another certificate printed on fancy paper in recognition of membership, achievement or simple brotherhood or sisterhood. Fortunately, having such coins made is not difficult, and you will not even have to leave your home or office to place an order for the very best in small customized metalwork.

The Internet is for Minting Custom Challenge Coins

custom challenge coinsMost minting companies make ordering challenge coins so easy that the only time you will have to leave your chair is when you get up to receive the delivery of the finished product! This is because all aspects of the transaction can be done over the internet. In fact, some companies go out of their way to make things even easier for potential customers by setting up chat lines and forms, so you do not even have to leave their website if you want to talk to them. You can use these avenues to ask any questions you have about the work that they do.

What may not be so easy is choosing which of the friendly and welcoming companies you’ll trust with your coins. To make a thoroughly informed decision, you’ll have to look beyond the company’s website to find what real people have to say about their work. Look for forums and blogs that are dedicated to challenge coins. Preferably, these will be run by individuals with no vested interests in the company, so that you can find out what their products and services are like from actual customers.

The Designs and Patterns on a Challenge Coin

It is no exaggeration to say that you can have anything you like to be placed on the challenge coins that you plan to make. The coins can handle a lot of detail, but since the design is stamped into them, you have to be sure that the details aren’t so fine that they meld into each other or are swallowed up by the enamel that is used to color the pattern. You will also have to leave a sizeable border just to be sure that your coins will not be irretrievably damaged if the pattern goes a little off center.

To make designing custom challenge coins a little easier, it is common practice for minting companies to have templates around which you can build the design for either side of your coins. You don’t necessarily have to stick to these, however. Just be sure that the resolution of any design you send for minting is at least 300 dpi so that no errors will be made for want of clarity.

The Practical Aspects of Minting Challenge Coins

The price of your custom challenge coins can vary quite a bit. The exact amount you’ll have to pay will depend on the size and quality of the raw materials for the coins, the intricacy and detail in the design, the extent of color usage and the number of coins you’ll ask for in one run. The minimum order requirement is usually in the hundreds, with 100 being the lowest number of coins you can order at a time, but some companies will do special runs at a slightly higher price.

The fee of coin minting includes the cost of the unique die they’ll need to make to stamp the coins, so expect smaller orders to cost more per coin than orders that number in the thousands: depending on the size of the batch, a single coin can cost anywhere from $2 to almost $5. If you need your coins in a hurry, you might need to pay a little extra so that they get to you in just 7 to 10 days.


Customized Neck Lanyards: A Fantastic Way to Promote Your Business

Posted in Product on February 4th, 2015
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Neck lanyards have become a part of everyday accessories. Almost everyone is wearing it or at least holding on to it.

Lanyards have always been used to keep small items secured and accessible. You can use it to hold your mobile phone, your keys, or even your flash disk. The most common users of necklanyards are students and employees. They use these to carry their IDs as the lanyards also have their school or office’s name printed on it.

Looking at how schools and even government agencies use this item, lanyards can also be used to advertise a certain brand. Other than helping you identity where a person attends school or works from, these items also helps promote business as it carries the brand name.

Using Customized Lanyards for Promotion

Neck lanyardsCustomized lanyards are the most commonly sought for item by companies. Using these, they are able to place their own design, whether it’s their company name or their logo. Employees use these to attach their pens, mobile phones, and other items. This helps in identifying where they work. At the same time, people become familiar with the company’s name. This makes it an effective means for businessmen to reach out to their target market.

To further reach out to their target market, companies use lanyards to hold IDs of those participating in their event. Schools also use this to attract new students by making their lanyards attractive for teens and kids.

Whenever there’s a school fare or a high school event such as soccer competition, dance show, concerts or fund raisers, customized lanyards are used. The school, sometimes, allow school organizations to customize their own depending on what even they are sponsoring or for their own organization identification use.

Businesses also use lanyards to promote their business by giving it as giveaways. If they sponsor an event, their name can also be included in the lanyards. In some instances, they have participants use their own customized lanyards to hold name tags or business cards. This is not only to attract potential supporters but also other clients as well. Giving them can provide an impact to the recipient. This is, after all, one of the most useful items they can have.

Promotional customized neck lanyards are not new. In fact they have been used even by brands to attract customers. Even toy stores sell lanyards kids will love. Teens have lanyards hanging on their neck as it holds their mobile phones and digital cameras. There are even those who customized it with catchy lines that attract a wider range of market.

Using Neck Lanyards to Secure Items and to Style

As many people fancy using lanyards, certain companies are also using it as their brand’s additional merchandize. Teenagers and even kids usually have a neck lanyard to keep their items close to them. Some of these carry cartoon characters as design or simply have their names on it. This also allows them to use their mobile phones or USBs as accessories.

For adults, using lanyards seem to add that authoritative feel especially as it identifies them either as a participant, or a member of a group. Organizations use this to hold their member’s ID. In some instances, the members, themselves, use this outside organization use either to hold keys or other important items.

Perhaps the best use for neck lanyards, other than promotional or for stylish reasons, is safety of the item. It helps you become hand free from the item while keeping it safe from those who want to snatch it.

Customized lanyards are a great item to have. You can have it designed with your business’ name or simply add a few creative details to it and make it as a product to sell. Either way, its usefulness makes it a must-have by many people. It allows them to be hands-free from the item. And as they use this more, others get to know your brand and become familiar with it.

Seven Key Elements That Can Make You a Relevant Motivational Speaker

Posted in Motivation on February 2nd, 2015
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These seven elements should be present in any motivational speaker’s speech.

1. Motivation

motivational speakerMotivation does not last, so you have to find ways to renew it in your audience’s mind. This should be the goal of all your speeches – to motivate. There are different core values, lessons, and styles that motivational speakers use to achieve this, but at the end of it all, you should still be able to say that everyone who listened to you walked out feeling renewed and inspired.

A novice motivational speaker might be swallowed by his willingness to entertain and impress, but of course, you know better.

2. Challenges

It is easy to tell your audience to do this and do that, but without a benchmark to share, they wouldn’t know if what you are saying is possible from the beginning.

Sharing possible challenges that your audience might stumble upon, or are already dealing with, gives them the impression that you really know what they are going through. Hence, you really know how to help them.

The point of it is not to scare them away but to let them know what is really happening and what they are up against. It should be an eye-opener.

3. Balance

Life is not perfect, and your audience already knows that. Do not create an impression that they can live a perfect life free of troubles and worries because Utopia only exists in storybooks. To begin with, if that is true, why would they need a motivational speaker at all?

You have to show them balance: the good and bad, the prize and risk, and the pros and cons. They are in your audience because they want to know what is in the other end and how to get there. If they are feeling down, they want to be uplifted, so there should be a balance of everything.

4. Ability and special characteristics

Tap on your audience’s abilities and special characteristics. Make use of what they have and how they can enhance them. Motivation is not just about mindset; it is also about faith in one’s abilities. They have to feel they are worth something, and that they can become successful with their own abilities.

Sharing motivational stories can inspire them, but they also need to have a sense of importance for what they are.

5. Optimism

After showing both sides of the coin, one has to emerge the winner at some point. If you show the good and bad, the good naturally has to prevail. It has to represent optimism.

By sharing challenges, you give them a scenario where they can feel hope. That hope, no matter how small it may be, will be the motivation behind their perseverance. People will appreciate your motivational speech more if they know what it feels to be optimistic.

6. Vision

As a motivational speaker, your job is to help them set their vision because their minds are probably too cloudy to even think clearly. Always think that your audience is in a place of confusion and despondency for you to be able to deliver the most inspiring series of advice you can ever give.

You have to put them in a better place (pun unintended) which they cannot imagine at the moment. You have to show them a better future if all they can see is darkness. You have to show them the way if they are lost.

7. Success

You have to define success for them because most probably, many people in your audience do not even understand the success and triumph you are talking about. There are different standards for success. Some link it to wealth, some to family, and some to career. Your job as a motivational speaker is to give them a common idea behind the word – the principle behind achieving success.

Author Bio:
Motivation is not just about mindset; it is also about faith in one’s abilities. They have to feel they are worth something, and that they can become successful with their own abilities.

Logo lanyards: What type of material should You buy?

Posted in Product on January 28th, 2015
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Logo lanyards nowadays are printed or woven with different kinds of artwork preferred by the buyer. They are not just printed with simple designs; more commonly favoured are lanyards with logos and organizational or team/group designs or statements on it. They are worn around the neck not only for its purpose of holding small objects, but also to display the logos and design printed on it as part of a fashion trend.

LanyardsDifferent types of materials are used in making lanyards. There are plenty of reasons why certain materials prove to be of higher quality or more costly than the other. The type of material used does not only provide for the user’s comfort (for example, some individuals are allergic to nylon or polyester), but also to provide for its end-purpose in relevance to durability and logo quality. Commonly preferred materials used in lanyards are nylon, polyester, and silk or satin.

Polyester is one of the most popular materials frequently used in custom logo lanyards. Also used in clothing and furniture, it is generally like any other normal fabric and rarely causes skin discomfort. Skin allergies are not common and do not pose severe symptoms. The process of synthesizing and manufacturing polyester-type lanyards produces a high-quality, affordable, and safe-to-use product that can be used anytime, anywhere.

Logos on polyester lanyards are either printed or woven. Imprinted polyester logo lanyards are cheaper than the woven ones. In printing logos, texts, or designs, silkscreen is often used. On the other hand, logos on woven lanyards are made of strong polyester material. Text and designs are embroidered and produce a smooth and tough lanyard that could last for years. However, printing designs on the polyester is much easier than weaving on it, which is why imprinted lanyards translate intricate logos well compared to the embroidered ones.

Nylon, even though the least inexpensive type of lanyard material, is popular for its durability. Nylon is a thermoplastic (can be molded at high temperatures), silky material that is thicker and shinier than polyester lanyards. Designs, like polyester, are also imprinted on it through silkscreen. Nylon is perfect for complex logos and text, and because of the glossy look of the material, it allows the designs to stand out from the background, making it eye-catching and pretty.

Silk and satin are the least common types used in making logo lanyards. The most natural and affordable material, silk and satin are often used for textiles meant for comfort or decoration. Lanyards made from these materials are soft, smooth, thin, lightweight, and has no noticeable thread lines. Designs imprinted on it are very simple but is still easy to read and decipher.

Polyester is more hard-wearing than silk, even though silk is deemed to be one of the strongest natural fibers there is. Silk is smoother and more comfortable against the skin, but polyester is more flexible because it does not wrinkle easily.

Nylon, meanwhile, is much tougher than polyester. There is also no odor retention in nylon as compared with polyester. When using logo lanyards, it can’t be helped that sweat is produced because of the heat of the fabric against the skin, and it is a disadvantage if sweat and bacteria mix and may cause unpleasant odor on the polyester. The only upside of polyester against nylon is that it performs better in moisture management because it is more hydrophobic.

Even though some of the information given here might bore people interested in purchasing custom-made lanyards, it is important to know what type to buy because different materials indicate different tendencies in terms of use, quality, and even aestheticism. A consumer must be knowledgeable when it comes to products in order to not waste money and purchase the most suitable one.

Health Benefits of Golf

Posted in Sports on January 21st, 2015
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People get into sports for all sorts of reasons, whether it’s to make new friends or to cultivate a new hobby. However, getting fit is arguably the primary reason for most as the constant movement and athleticism required by most sports makes for a great workout.

Since it’s not quite as rigorous or physically intense as most sports, golf is generally seen by most people as a hobby that doesn’t offer as much health benefits. Further research on the subject proves otherwise, though.

For those who are hesitant about getting Rockbottomgolf equipment and trying the sport, the following is a list of health benefits that are sure to dispel any remaining doubts about how golf is as good a sport as any.

Callaway Golf1. Golf burns a lot of calories. Golf courses are usually vast, open spaces. Walking the entirety of one during a typical 18-hole game can equate to a 4-mile run (or about 10,000 steps, which more than meets the minimum level of physical exercise recommended by physicians). Golfers who walk the course while carrying their Callaway golf equipment stuffed-bags typically burn about 2,000 calories. Those who ride golf carts, on the other hand, burn about 1,300 calories, which is the same amount of calories someone would burn if they were to jog on a treadmill for more than 2 hours.

2. Golf can significantly improve one’s posture and balance, thereby lessening the likelihood of back pains or accidents due to tripping or falling. Developing proper form in golf often results in better balance control for players of all ages (provided that one is using the proper equipment, such as those being sold at reliable retailers of Callaway golf), though it’s especially beneficial for those who are aged 60 and above since they are more vulnerable to injuries caused by being thrown off-balance.

3. Like most sports, golf encourages the body to release endorphins – a natural “feel-good” hormone. Furthermore, golf can be played as an individual sport and golf courses are a lot more calming and peaceful than other sporting venues. Thus, playing golf can relieve the body of the harmful effects of stress.

4. Playing golf regularly can prevent the onset of dementia or Alzheimer’s. The degree of concentration and strategy-making that the sport requires stimulates blood circulation in the brain, as well as repairs and enhances the connections between the nerve cells.

5. The exercise that one gets from a full 18-hole game of golf can dramatically reduce the body’s blood glucose levels by as much as 30%. Coupled with the significant amount of calories burned in the process, golfers generally stay within a healthy weight with relatively little effort.

6. Golf is also a great exercise for the heart. Provided that one doesn’t get too excited with their credit card at the nearest Callaway golf retailer (and thus set himself/herself up for a big shock once the bill arrives), golf can be extremely beneficial for one’s cardiovascular health. Regularly playing 18-hole games can build stamina and can boost the heart’s endurance. The considerable degree of physical activity involved in walking across the golf course, swinging the golf club, and lugging heavy equipment bags also helps regulate good blood circulation, which helps keep the heart pumping at a healthy pace.

7. Golf helps people live longer than average. The combined health benefits of regularly playing golf have been found to increase a person’s life expectancy by as much as 5 years, as compared to his/her non-golfer peers.

8. Golfers also enjoy better, more regular sleeping patterns than non-golfers. Most golfers normally hit the course early in the morning, so they are conditioned to sleep before midnight. This in turn helps their bodies recuperate better since the human body’s regeneration process take place between 10 pm to 2 am.